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Papua New Guinea (PNG) is rich in natural resources with extensive reserves of natural gas and oil. Mineral deposits of gold, copper and cobalt are equally in abundance. The surrounding waters are rich in marine life and its share of resources. Equally, forest products are major exports and vast timber resource remains to be sustainably tapped. Agricultural commodities have been the country’s backbone to economic development. PNG’s culture and traditions are diverse and richly colorful, contributing to its tourism potential. All these are a perfect recipe for huge and varied economic developments. However, despite the availability of these raw materials and favourable reporting (Pacific Economic Bulletin, Vol.25 No.1, 2010) for economic development, the country is still far from rich, in technically skilled human capital. Law and order, unemployment, urban drift, corruption, HIV/AIDS, an unskilled workforce, the economy, unequal distribution of wealth, and so on, are the overarching concerns. The Government has outlined its main policies for economic recovery and development including human resource development, and has set new targets to reach under its Vision 2050 and the National Development Strategy, 2030.
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Arnold Kukari and Eileen Honan
Research on effective schools has shown that the greatest influences on student achievement are the teacher and the quality of teaching that takes
place in the classroom. Quality teaching requires, among other factors, the engagement of
teachers in ongoing teacher professional learning by teachers.
Teacher professional learning must not only focus on enabling teachers to implement curriculum reform initiated by the National Department of Education, but more significantly, must also enable teachers to engage in a process of critically reflecting on their teaching and using research evidence to continuously improve their teaching. The focus of teacher professional learning should be on improving teachers’ teaching effectiveness and student academic outcomes.A number of teacher professional development models have been used in Papua New Guinea (PNG) with varying success. These include: the expert-novice; cascade or train the trainer, and school or cluster-based models. Research has shown that the first two models were in most cases ineffective in improving teachers’ teaching effectiveness. It was found that teacher professional learning using these models did not have a multiplier effect, that teachers who are beneficiaries of these learning programs rarely use the knowledge and skills acquired to improve their teaching practices and that there was no institutionalisation and sustainability of what was learned.
Conversely, research has shown that site-based models of teacher learning are the most effective for sustained changes to teachers’ teaching practices.
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By Ron Duncan
There is a need for Papua New Guineans to thoroughly discuss the management of the
government’s share of the mineral, oil, and gas revenues. Papua New Guinea has experienced two major mining booms since independence. As noted in the 2009 Pacific Economic Bulletin’s economic survey of the PNG economy, the first of these booms in the
early 1990s was managed very poorly, with government expenditure greatly exceeding
revenues. This resulted in a large increase in public debt and the devaluation and eventual floating of the kina. The recent commodity boom has been managed more effectively, with the paying down of public debt and the setting aside in trust funds of some of the windfall revenues for future expenditure on long-overdue refurbishment of important public infrastructure and development of essential services. Unfortunately, there has been also sharply increased recurrent expenditure; and currently there is some doubt about how well
the windfall revenues set aside in trust funds have subsequently been managed.
Whether the setting aside of the windfall revenues in various designated trust funds
was a good idea or not, it was an ad hoc reaction to the receipt of the commodity
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By Thomas Webster
This article argues that Government borrowing and spending on the Sovereign Community Infrastructure Treasure Bills which have recently been discussed widely in the media is
clearly outside of the purview of parliament. It is thus contrary to one of the most basic principles of democracy, is illegal as per the Public Financial Management Act, and creates
incentives for incumbents to accumulate strategic debt. The bills are therefore undemocratic, illegal, and immoral.
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By: Arnold Kukari, Patricia Paraide, Kapa KelepMalpo, Sebastian Mugup and Wilson Pes
The process of appointing teachers to teaching positions is outlined in the Teaching Service Act, 1995 (Consolidated to No. 20 of 1995), Education Act, 1983 (Consolidated to No. 13 of 1995), and the Teaching Service Commission’s Human Resource Information and Operations Manual. However, a recent study on teacher appointments in primary schools found that the appointment of teachers to teaching positions, in most cases, is done outside of these legal and policy frameworks.
This contributes to corruption, lack of accountability and transparency, and failure on the part of the appointing authorities to effectively and efficiently manage the process of teacher appointments. Problems associated with teacher appointments are exacerbated by a lack of clarity, duplication and division in the Teaching Service Commission’s (TSC) and the National Education Board’s teacher appointment roles and functions stipulated under the Teaching Service Act, 1995 and the Education Act, 1995. This situation does not only create confusion amongst the teachers, but also contributes towards the creation and perpetuation of teacher appointment problems throughout PNG.
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Research Papers in Papua New Guinea
On this page we provide some research papers in PNG.